Rubin's (1921) vase
In “Silver Blaze,” one of Sherlock Holmes's short stories, the great detective identifies an important clue in “the curious incident of the dog in the night-time”; the fact that the dog did nothing in the night-time was the curious incident. However, humans are generally poor at noticing “non-occurring” things, like a dog not barking.
Logically speaking, occurrence and non-occurrence are akin to affirmation and negation, respectively. Psychologically, however, they are a kind of the “figure and ground” relationship, with occurrence being the figure and non-occurrence being the ground. In other words, when expressed in logic notation, affirmation and negation are symmetrical, but psychologically, they are asymmetrical.
Assuming that the asymmetry in our thinking as described above is a common factor underlying various cognitive errors and biases, we conduct various experiments aimed at verifying this assumption.
Hattori, M., Over, D., Hattori, I., Takahashi, T., & Baratgin, J. (2016a). Dual frames in causal reasoning and other types of thinking. In N. Galbraith, E. Lucas, & D. Over (Eds.), The thinking mind: A festschrift for Ken Manktelow (pp. 98–114). London: Routledge.
Hattori, M. (2014d). Figure and ground in thinking: The affirmation–negation asymmetry as a consequence of framing. The Ritsumeikan Bungaku: The Journal of Cultural Sciences, 636, 131–147. (In Japanese with English abstract)