The Furukawa theory of blood-type and temperament: The origins of a temperament theory during the 1920s
The Japanese Journal of Personality, 3, 51-65,1995.
Sato Tatsuya (Department of Sociology, Faculty of Administration and Social Sciences, Fukushima University,Fukushima-shi, Fukushima, 960-12)
Watanabe Yoshiyuki (Department of Psychology, School of Nursing and Social Services, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, Tobetsa-cho, Hokkaido 061-02)
Furukawa Takeji (1891-1940) proposed a theory on the relation between blood types and temperament. In this paper, we attempted to describe why and how he developed the unique theory, in the context of education during the late Taisho -- early Showa period (1920s). First, a few formative influences on Furakawa's life and career were reviewed, and some of his early articles examined, which were written prior to his theory on temperament. There are three facts that we found especially interesting and informative. (1) Furukawa majored in experimental education at university, and upon his employment at a women's high school, he worked in its administration office. He came to believe there that temperamental differences of applicants were responsible
for the failure of predicting school performance from results of entrance examination. (2) He thought that human temperament was so simple that a theory needed to consider only two temperament types. (3) He was from a family of many doctors, and was familiar with blood type, which was the newest physiological discovery of the day. In conclusion, the significance of studying history of psychology was discussed.
Key words: Furukawa Takeji, temperament theory, blood type, history of psychology