Crater illusion 2

An apparent convex changes to an apparent concave, vice versa, when the image is rotated through 180 degrees.

since January 28, 2013


"Crater illusion of triangular-wave luminance modulation"

A new demo of the crater illusion has been produced! Squares (a) appear to be convex whereas squares (b) to be concave, though the luminance gradient of square (a) is just the mirror image of that of square (b). Moreover, horizontally drawn black-and-white line segments appear to tilt counterclockwise.

Copyright Akiyoshi Kitaoka 2018 (January 14)


"Crater illusion of triangular-wave luminance modulation"

n this image, squares (a) appear to be CONCAVE whereas squares (b) to be CONVEX, though the luminance gradient of square (a) is just the mirror image of that of square (b). Moreover, horizontally drawn black-and-white line segments appear to tilt clockwise.

Copyright Akiyoshi Kitaoka 2018 (January 14)


"Crater illusion of triangular-wave luminance modulation"

In this image, squares (a) sometimes appear to be convex whereas squares (b) to be concave. This appearance is reversed other times. Moreover, horizontally drawn black-and-white line segments appear to tilt counterclockwise, clockwise and counterclockwise.

Copyright Akiyoshi Kitaoka 2018 (January 14)


"Crater illusion of triangular-wave luminance modulation"

In this image, squares (a) appear to be convex whereas squares (b) to be concave. Moreover, vertically drawn black-and-white line segments appear to tilt clockwise.

Copyright Akiyoshi Kitaoka 2018 (January 14)


"Subjective contour and crater illusion"

The words at the upper left appear to be convex while those at the lower left to be concave. When they are inverted upside down as shown at the right, apparent convex/concave is exchanged.

Copyright Akiyoshi Kitaoka 2015 (May 23)




Japanese version



©NASA
NASA Center: Johnson Space Center
Image # : AS10-32-4823
Date : 05/01/1969
Title : Terraced Wall Crater on the Lunar Limb
http://grin.hq.nasa.gov/BROWSE/apollo10_1.html (2009年6月11日に立命館大学よりアクセス)


Is there the crater illusion?


"Convex-concave reversible image"

Darker squares appear to be convex toward observers for one time, while ligter ones do so for the other time.

Copyright Akiyoshi Kitaoka 2015 (April 24)


The image appears to move rightward.


"Ascending"

Darker squares appear to be convex and the image appears to ascend.


"Descending"

Lighter squares appear to be convex and the image appears to descend.


After Fig .1 of Tsuruhara, Sawada, Kanazawa, Yamaguchi and Yonas (2009)

Tsuruhara, A., Sawada, T., Kanazawa, S., Yamaguchi,M.K., and Yonas, A. (2009). Infant’s ability to form a common representation of an object’s shape from different pictorial depth cues: A transfer-across-cues study. Infant Behavior and Development, 32, 468–475. (p.470, Fig .1)

Also see:
Blake A, and Bülthoff H. (1990). Does the brain know the physics of specular reflection? Nature, 343, 165-168.
Reichel, F. D., & Todd, J.T. (1990). Perceived depth inversion of smoothly curved surfaces due to image orientation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 16, 653-664.


I made the image show below (May 16, 2011) after I had seen the Tsuruhara et al.'s (2009) image.

with permission on July 24, 2014



"Glossy crater illusion: CMY"

For each block, the center of the left pattern appears to be convex while that of the right one appears to be concve. The appearance does not change with the imgae being upside-down.

Copyright Akiyoshi Kitaoka 2013 (January 28)

cf. Motoyoshi, I., Nishida, S., Sharan, L. & Adelson, E.H. (2007). Image statistics and the perception of surface qualities. Nature, 447, 206-209.



"Glossy crater illusion: RGB"

For each block, the center of the left pattern appears to be convex while that of the right one appears to be concave. The appearance does not change with the image being upside-down.

Copyright Akiyoshi Kitaoka 2013 (January 28)



"Mat crater illusion: CMY"

For each block, the center of the left pattern appears to be convex while that of the right one appears to be concave. The appearance does not change with the image being upside-down.

Copyright Akiyoshi Kitaoka 2013 (January 28)

cf. Motoyoshi, I., Nishida, S., Sharan, L. & Adelson, E.H. (2007). Image statistics and the perception of surface qualities. Nature, 447, 206-209.



"Both eyes"

The center of the left pattern appears to be convex while that of the right one appears to be concave. The appearance does not change with the image being upside-down.

Copyright Akiyoshi Kitaoka 2013 (January 29)



"Double lips"

The center of the left pattern appears to be convex while that of the right one appears to be concave. The appearance does not change with the image being upside-down.

Copyright Akiyoshi Kitaoka 2013 (January 29)



"Stoves"

The center of the left pattern appears to be convex while that of the right one appears to be concave. The appearance does not change with the image being upside-down.

Copyright Akiyoshi Kitaoka 2013 (January 29)



"Shinkansen: 0-series and 500-series"

*shinkansen = bullet trains in Japan

The center of the left pattern appears to be convex while that of the right one appears to be concave. The appearance does not change with the image being upside-down.

Copyright Akiyoshi Kitaoka 2013 (January 28)


Crater illusion


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