Illusions observed outdoors #4

since February 10, 2009

Photos of the Café Wall in Bristol, where the late Professor Richard Gregory rediscovered the Café Wall illusion (Gregory and Heard, 1979), taken by Professor Shigemasa Sumi when he participated in ECVP in 1988. <July 11, 2010>

Copyright Shigemasa Sumi 1988


Gregory, R. L. and Heard, P. (1979) Border locking and the Café Wall illusion. Perception, 8, 365-380.

Café Wall illusion

Before the Café Wall illusion, the Münsterberg illusion (Münsterberg, 1897) was well-known. The Café Wall illusion was first invented by Fraser (1908) and rediscovered by Gregory and Heard (1979). See Kitaoka et al. (2004).


Fraser, J. (1908) A new visual illusion of direction. British Journal of Psychology, 2, 307-320.

Kitaoka, A., Pinna, B., and Brelstaff, G. (2004) Contrast polarities determine the direction of Café Wall tilts. Perception, 33, 11-20.

Münsterberg, H. (1897) Die vershobene Schachbrettfigur. Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 15, 184-188.

Münsterberg illusion

Café Wall illusion in Washuzan Highland, an amusement park in Okayama, Japan. <photo taken January 4, 2008>

Checkered illusion (rectangular bricks appear to bulge) shown on the wall of the Louis Vuitton building in Kochi, Japan. <photo taken January 3, 2006>


Kitaoka, A. (1998). Apparent contraction of edge angles. Perception, 27, 1209-1219.

"Composite photograph illusion"

The upper half appears to be a photo different from the lower half, though this image is a single photograph.

Copyright Akiyoshi Kitaoka 2009 (October 4)

photo taken on September 30, in Sydney

Akiyoshi's first visit to Australia

"The checker-shadow illusion in a real floor"

A appears to be darker than B in the middle photo, but A is actually brighter in luminance than B as shown in the rightmost image.

Copyright hisa and Akiyoshi Kitaoka 2009 (May 27)
Original photo from hisa, Japan, May 26, 2009

Checker-shadow illusion (Professor Adelson's webpage, MIT)


This fractal vegetable "romanesco" looks like an illusion image.

Copyright Yoshiko Oishi 2009 (February 10)
from Yoshiko Oishi, Japan, February 10, 2009

Illusions observed outdoors 3

Illusions observed outdoors 2

Illusions observed outdoors 1

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